Au terme du traité de Limerick (1691), les catholiques obtiennent une certaine liberté religieuse et les terres qu’ils possédaient sous Charles II leur sont restituées. Ils y prépareront aussi les expéditions vers l'Écosse en 1706 et 1715.  It also coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England.  Disputes over the relationship between king and Parliament led to the War of the Three Kingdoms and continued after The Restoration in 1660. The East India Company was thus an ideal tool to create a vast new English imperial dominion by warring with the Dutch and the Mughal Empire in India. La Glorieuse Révolution d’Angleterre, 1688 (The Glorious Revolution of England, 1688), Gallimard, Paris, 1988. At this point, with the English fleet in pursuit, Russell told Burnet: "You may go to prayers, Doctor. The Glorious Revolution, also called “The Revolution of 1688” and “The Bloodless Revolution,” took place from 1688 to 1689 in England. It is difficult to classify the entire proceedings of 1687–1689 but it can be seen that the events occurred in three phases: conspiracy, invasion by Dutch forces, and "Glorious Revolution". Thus, he landed far away from James's army, expecting that his English allies would take the initiative in acting against James, while he ensured his own protection against potential attacks.  It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. His standard was hoisted, displaying the arms of Nassau quartered with those of England. By confirming France's primary objective was the Rhineland, the second allowed William to move troops from the eastern border to the coast, even though most of the new mercenaries had yet to arrive.  The Revolution led to the Act of Toleration of 1689, which granted toleration to Nonconformist Protestants, but not to Roman Catholics. entrée de catholiques dans l'armée et dans les universités ; l'accession au trône est interdite aux catholiques ; des élections libres et le renouvellement du Parlement sont assurés ; la présence d'une armée en temps de paix est illégale. By making it seem James was still in control, Tory loyalists hoped for a negotiated settlement which would leave them in control of government; to create an appearance of normality, he heard Mass and presided over a meeting of the Privy Council. , However, on 16 March a Letter from James was read out to the Convention, demanding obedience and threatening punishment for non-compliance. , Suspicions increased when James sought William's backing for repealing the Test Acts; he predictably refused, further damaging their relationship. This year they came early however. With France on the verge of war, their absence was of great concern to the States General and Bentinck hired 13,616 German mercenaries to man Dutch border fortresses, freeing elite units like the Scots Brigade for use in England. More important in that respect was the need to keep happy his Roman Catholic allies[e] in the coming struggle with Louis XIV. William went on to condemn James's advisers for overturning the religion, laws, and liberties of England, Scotland, and Ireland by the use of the suspending and dispensing power; the establishment of the "manifestly illegal" commission for ecclesiastical causes and its use to suspend the Bishop of London and to remove the Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford.  The second was the Coronation Oath Act 1688; the result of James' perceived failure to comply with that taken in 1685, it established obligations owed by the monarchy to the people. The two initially shared common objectives in wanting Mary to succeed her father, while French ambitions in the Spanish Netherlands threatened both English and Dutch trade. In general, the mood was one of confusion, mutual distrust and depression. Under the 1542 Crown of Ireland Act, the English monarch was automatically king of Ireland as well. The English envoy Ignatius White, the Marquess d'Albeville, warned his country: "an absolute conquest is intended under the specious and ordinary pretences of religion, liberty, property and a free Parliament". Louis had in fact delayed his threats against the Dutch until early September because he assumed it then would be too late in the season to set the expedition in motion anyway, if their reaction proved negative; typically such an enterprise would take at least some months. De là, ils préparèrent notamment le débarquement de Kinsale, sur la côte sud de l'Irlande le 12 mars 1689 avec 10 000 soldats français. , After 1678, France continued its expansion into the Rhineland, including the 1683 to 1684 War of the Reunions, demands in the Palatinate and construction of forts at Landau and Traben-Trarbach. Plusieurs historiens questionnent désormais la nature des changements politiques menant au renversement de Jacques II.  In Yorkshire, printer John White started to print the same document for a more widespread distribution. Les chercheurs Douglass North et Barry Weingast (en) ont, dans un article célèbre, attribué l'essor du crédit public en Angleterre au XVIIIe siècle à l’établissement d’une monarchie de type parlementaire, les droits de propriété des créanciers se voyant enfin défendus contre l’arbitraire de l’État.  On 3/13 November, the invasion fleet entered the English Channel through the Strait of Dover in an enormous square formation, 25 ships deep, the right and left of the fleet saluting Dover and Calais simultaneously, to show off its size. After 1689 came an alternative understanding of economics, which saw Britain as a commercial rather than an agrarian society. He left London on 18 December with a Dutch escort, just as William entered London, cheered by the same crowds who greeted his predecessor two days before.  Combined with Louis' expansionist policies and the killing of 2,000 Vaudois Protestants in 1686, it led to fears Protestant Europe was threatened by a Catholic counter-reformation. On 9 November (Julian calendar), William took Exeter after the magistrates had fled the city, entering on a white palfrey, with the two hundred black men forming a guard of honour, dressed in white, with turbans and feathers.  While this had been the original plan, winter storms meant conditions deteriorated rapidly for those on the transports; William therefore decided to sail in convoy and avoid battle. La Glorieuse révolution. Une tentative de reconquête jacobite, sous forme de débarquement, avec l'aide de Louis XIV et de Louvois au départ du port français de La Hougue, dans le Cotentin français échoue en 1692. In diplomacy and economics William III transformed the English state's ideology and policies. , While Scotland was not involved in the landing, by November 1688 only a tiny minority actively supported James; many of those who accompanied William were Scots exiles, including Melville, the Argyll, his personal chaplain William Carstares and Gilbert Burnet. Pour Jonathan Israel[Où ? , James' departure significantly shifted the balance of power in favour of William, who took control of the provisional government on 28 December. , The swiftness of the embarkations surprised all foreign observers. At that moment, however, the wind changed and the fog lifted, enabling the fleet to sail into Torbay, near Brixham, Devon. In 1712 the Republic was financially exhausted; it withdrew from international politics and was forced to let its fleet deteriorate, making what was by then the Kingdom of Great Britain the dominant maritime power of the world.  This was combined with an inability to accept opposition; in April 1687, he ordered Magdalen College, Oxford to elect a Catholic sympathiser named Anthony Farmer as president, but as he was ineligible under the college statutes, the fellows elected John Hough instead. While still a dangerous undertaking, the invasion was less risky than it seemed.. William was King James II's nephew and Mary's first cousin.  In August 1687, William's cousin de Zuylestein travelled to England with condolences on the death of Mary of Modena's mother, allowing him to make contact with the political opposition. Risques et périls, 50 catastrophes qui ont bouleversé l’Histoire – First Edition, 224p.  On 11 May, William and Mary accepted the Crown of Scotland; after their acceptance, the Claim and the Articles were read aloud, leading to an immediate debate over whether or not an endorsement of these documents was implicit in that acceptance. , Reasonable in theory, his reliance on the loyalty and efficiency of the military proved deeply flawed. A son accession au trône, le …  In an age when oaths were seen as fundamental to a stable society, he had sworn to uphold the supremacy of the Church of England, a commitment viewed by many as incompatible with 'Tolerance'.  He then alienated many by perceived attacks on the established church; Henry Compton, Bishop of London, was suspended for refusing to ban John Sharp from preaching after he gave an anti-Catholic sermon. William intended to land at Torbay but due to fog the fleet sailed past it by mistake. , On 19 November James joined his main force of 19,000 at Salisbury, but it soon became apparent his army was not eager to fight and the loyalty of his commanders doubtful. On 30 September/10 October (Julian/Gregorian calendars) William issued the Declaration of The Hague (actually written by Fagel), of which 60,000 copies of the English translation by Gilbert Burnet were distributed after the landing in England, in which he assured that his only aim was to maintain the Protestant religion, install a free parliament and investigate the legitimacy of the Prince of Wales. The Dutch economy, already burdened by the high national debt and concomitant high taxation, suffered from the other European states' protectionist policies, which its weakened fleet was no longer able to resist.  His relationship with James was affected by the fact both men relied on advisors with relatively limited views; in William's case, mainly English and Scots Presbyterian exiles, the latter with close links to the Protestant minority in Ireland, who saw Tyrconnell's policies as a threat to their existence. , There was much greater sympathy in Scotland for a 'Stuart heir', and the 1681 Succession Act confirmed the duty of all to support him, 'regardless of religion. William considered his veteran army to be sufficient in size to defeat any forces (all rather inexperienced) that James could throw against him, but it had been decided to avoid the hazards of battle and maintain a defensive attitude in the hope that James's position might collapse by itself. La révolution sans effusion de sang: Angleterre, 1688 . En 1688, au sein de l'expédition de 11 000 fantassins et 4 000 cavaliers qui débarquent en Angleterre et organisent la Glorieuse Révolution, figurent des réfugiés protestants français en Hollande : trois régiments d'infanterie, de 750 hommes chacun, et un escadron de cavalerie, composés entièrement de Français, auxquels s'ajoutent, disséminés dans les autres régiments, environ 730 officiers français, qui ont l'expérience des campagnes menées sous Turenne et Schomberg, soit un total d'environ 3 300 huguenots. , Officially, the invasion was a private affair, the States General allowing William use of the Dutch army and fleet. La nouvelle banque centrale est très vite à l'origine du développement de banques commerciales, qui irriguent financièrement le pays. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWakeling1896 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMiller2012 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMackayScott1984 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBeddard1988 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPincus2009 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMaer,_Gay2008 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHertzler1987 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPincus2009 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDekrey2008 (, L. 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Despite his Catholicism, James became king in 1685 with widespread support, as demonstrated by the rapid defeat of the Argyll and Monmouth Rebellions; less than four years later, he was forced into exile. Three regiments sent out on 15th to make contact with William promptly defected, while supply problems left the rest short of food and ammunition. This fact has led many historians, including Stephen Webb, to suggest that, in England at least, the events more closely resemble a coup d'état than a social revolution. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. , James II tried building a powerful militarised state on the mercantilist assumption that the world's wealth was necessarily finite and empires were created by taking land from other states. La Glorieuse Révolution de l'Angleterre 1688–89: une brève histoire avec des documents . Why people backed James in 1685, but abandoned him in 1688 are complex and hard to generalise. 1688. Ils choisirent de faire appel au prince d'Orange pour se débarrasser de Jacques II. , While James' supporters viewed hereditary succession as more important than his personal Catholicism, they opposed its extension into public life; from the start, opposition to his religious policies was led by devout Anglicans. L'archevêque de Cantorbéry, William Sancroft, et six autres évêques, s'y opposèrent. , On 16/26 October William boarded his ship, the Den Briel (Brill in English).  In London, his flight and rumours of a "Papist" invasion led to riots and destruction of Catholic property, which quickly spread throughout the country. De nombreux huguenots ont fui aux Provinces-Unies des Pays-Bas espagnols dès la fin du XVIe siècle avec le départ de 30 000 protestants flamands d'Anvers pour Amsterdam, devenue capitale des libertés en Europe. Having England as an ally meant that the military situation of the Republic was strongly improved, but this very fact induced William to be uncompromising in his position towards France. In 1672, an alliance with the Electorate of Cologne enabled France to bypass Dutch forward defences and nearly over-run the Republic, so ensuring an anti-French ruler was vital to prevent a repetition. La révolution renforça la monarchie mixte et réaffirma le rôle du Parlement face à la Couronne. La plupart des historiens penchent désormais pour décrire la Glorieuse Révolution comme une invasion néerlandaise de la Grande-Bretagne dans des circonstances de tensions internationales élevées. On 19 April (Julian calendar) the Dutch delegation signed a naval treaty with England. En contrepartie, ceux-ci durent contresigner, en février 1689, la Déclaration des droits (Bill of Rights) qui inscrivit dans la loi les acquis du Commonwealth d'Angleterre et du règne de Charles II : Cette Déclaration des droits marque la naissance d'une certaine forme de parlementarisme. La Glorieuse Révolution . This led to the production of the Invitation to William, signed by seven representatives from the key constituencies whose support William needed in order to commit to an invasion.  Being ready after the last week of September / first week of October would normally have meant that the Dutch could have profited from the last spell of good weather, as the autumn storms tend to begin in the third week of that month. When the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to repeal the 1678 and 1681 Test Acts, he suspended them in November 1685 and ruled by decree. Nantes est le port auquel Louis XIV, fidèle soutien des jacobites, apporte un soutien régulier, dès les années 1670, puis au moment de l'essor de Saint-Domingue. William came ashore on 5/15 November. Historians argue these were genuine, but James did not appreciate the distrust caused by his domestic policies. Rapin de Thoyras, who was on board one of the ships, described it as the most magnificent and affecting spectacle that was ever seen by human eyes. On 20 November, dragoons led by Irish Catholic Patrick Sarsfield clashed with Williamite scouts at Wincanton; along with a minor skirmish at Reading on 9 December, also featuring Sarsfield, these were the only substantial military actions of the campaign. En 1685, lors des dragonnades et de la révocation de l’édit de Nantes, c'est donc vers les Provinces-Unies que fuient naturellement les huguenots de la deuxième génération d'immigrants. For three weeks the invasion fleet was prevented by adverse south-westerly gales from departing from the naval port of Hellevoetsluis and Catholics all over the Netherlands and the British kingdoms held prayer sessions that this "popish wind" might endure. They included the land magnates Danby and Devonshire, one a Whig, one a Tory; Henry Compton, Bishop of London, for the church; Shrewsbury and Lumley the army, and finally Russell and Sydney for the navy. His Whig opponents did not trust him to keep his promises, while Tories like Danby were too committed to William to escape punishment. Elections were held in early January for a Convention Parliament which assembled on 22nd; the Whigs had a slight majority in the Commons, the Lords was dominated by the Tories but both were led by moderates. For the revolution of 1868 in Spain, see, Dutch preparations: July to September 1688, Embarkation of the army and the Declaration of The Hague. Parmi eux, Jean Stapleton, négociant et planteur à Saint-Domingue, ou Antoine Walsh, l'une des premières fortunes de la ville, qui organisa 46 voyages de commerce triangulaire dont sept pour la seule année 1751. Consequently, as a Calvinist and Presbyterian he was now in the unenviable position of being the head of the Church of England, while also being a Nonconformist.  In April 1688, he ordered his Declaration of Indulgence read in every church; when the Archbishop of Canterbury and six other bishops refused, they were charged with seditious libel and confined in the Tower of London. While he was guaranteed support from the Catholic majority, James was also popular among Irish Protestants. , He often made things worse by political clumsiness; to general fury, the Ecclesiastical Commission of 1686 established to discipline the Church of England included suspected Catholics like the Earl of Huntingdon. The importance of the event has divided historians ever since Friedrich Engels judged it "a relatively puny event". When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments in 1685 and ruling by personal decree. , In 1677, James' elder daughter and heir Mary married her Protestant cousin William of Orange, stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic.  On the pretext of needing additional resources to deal with French privateers, in July the States General authorised an additional 9,000 sailors and 21 new warships. In 1600, 90% of Irish land was owned by Catholics but following a series of confiscation during the 17th century, this had dropped to 22% in 1685. Le Parlement multiplie les prix et les récompenses financières pour les ingénieurs et les inventeurs. First, the Declaration of Right made keeping a standing army without Parliamentary consent illegal, over turning the 1661 and 1662 Militia Acts and vesting control of the military in Parliament, not the Crown. Tyrconnell had created a largely Roman Catholic army and administration which was reinforced in March 1689 when James landed in Ireland with French military support; it took two years of fighting before the new regime controlled Ireland. These powers were greatly restricted; he or she could no longer suspend laws, levy taxes, make royal appointments, or maintain a standing army during peacetime without Parliament's permission – to this day the Army is known as the "British Army" not the "Royal Army" as it is, in some sense, Parliament's Army and not that of the King. However, the surrender of Belgrade on 6 September seemed to presage an Ottoman collapse and release Austrian resources for use in Germany.  Although Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century, the Revolution ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Actifs dans le grand commerce maritime, les jacobites maintiennent des relations avec l'Irlande jusqu'en 1741, l'année de la dernière tentative de débarquement, puis se concentrèrent sur les esclaves vers les Antilles, qui représentent ensuite un tiers du commerce des jacobites contre un sixième pour la moyenne des autres marchands nantais. Despite suffering from sea-sickness William refused to go ashore and the fleet reassembled, having lost only one ship that grounded, though about a thousand crippled horses had been thrown into the sea. Le gendre de Jacques II, Guillaume III d'Orange, stathouder des Pays-Bas, est l'époux de la princesse Marie. In October, attempts were made to restore the militia but many members were reportedly so angry at the changes made to local corporations, James was advised it was better not to raise them. Catholic emancipation would be delayed for 140 years. It stipulated that the combined Anglo-Dutch fleet would always be commanded by an Englishman, even when of lower rank; also it specified that the two parties would contribute in the ratio of five English vessels against three Dutch vessels, meaning in practice that the Dutch navy in the future would be smaller than the English. Source: Wikipedia. With the Dutch on the verge of war with France, he did not believe the States General would allow William to make the attempt; if they did, his army and navy were strong enough to defeat it. Both remained overwhelmingly Protestant and anti-Catholic; in July, only personal intervention by James prevented a naval mutiny when a Catholic captain held Mass on his ship.  The English naval command now considered trying to blockade Hellevoetsluis but decided against it, because it was feared that the English fleet would founder on the Dutch coast, a dangerous lee shore for a blocking force, due to the stormy weather. We have great reason to believe, we shall be every day in a worse condition than we are, and less able to defend ourselves, and therefore we do earnestly wish we might be so happy as to find a remedy before it be too late for us to contribute to our own deliverance ... the people are so generally dissatisfied with the present conduct of the government, in relation to their religion, liberties and properties (all which have been greatly invaded), and they are in such expectation of their prospects being daily worse, that your Highness may be assured, there are nineteen parts of twenty of the people throughout the kingdom, who are desirous of a change; and who, we believe, would willingly contribute to it, if they had such a protection to countenance their rising, as would secure them from being destroyed. , The next two weeks were spent debating how to resolve this issue, much to the annoyance of William, who needed a swift resolution; the situation in Ireland was rapidly deteriorating, while the French had over-run large parts of the Rhineland and were preparing to attack the Dutch. Key landing locations in the South-West and Yorkshire had been secured by sympathisers, while both army and navy were led by officers whose loyalty was questionable.  In addition, local government and town corporations were purged to create an obedient electoral machine, further alienating the county gentry who had formed the majority of those who backed James in 1685. For a history of the vegetarian movement, see, This article is about the English revolution of 1688. Pincus argues that it was momentous especially when looking at the alternative that James was trying to enact – a powerful centralised autocratic state, using French-style "state-building". Dans les années 1700, les jacobites s'installent dans le port français de Nantes, où une colonie irlandaise existe déjà depuis les années Cromwell et se renforce avec l'armateur James Sarsfield, 2e comte de Lucan (en), fils de Patrick Sarsfield, officier irlandais qui a servi en France dans l'armée de Louis XIV de 1671 à 1678 puis sous Jacques II, période où il a signé le traité de Limerick qui mettait fin à la guerre, garantissait les droits du peuple irlandais et permettait à vingt mille soldats irlandais, appelés les oies sauvages, d'émigrer avec lui vers la France.