[57][58], In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. Because of Los Angeles's large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Baháʼí, various Eastern Orthodox churches, Sufism, Shintoism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion and countless others. Downtown Los Angeles averages 14.93 in (379 mm) of precipitation annually, mainly occurring between November and March,[84] generally in the form of moderate rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall during winter storms. IST L1 SHA WIKIPEDIA 3 MédiaWiki et les évolutions des technologies du Web 2.0.WP bénéficie depuis sa création des avancées technologiques liées au Web 2.0 : le web où l’utilisateur peut The Hispanic population has a long established Mexican-American and Central American community and is spread well-nigh throughout the entire city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area. During World War II, Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Cahiers philosophiques, Réseau Canopé 2015, 2 (141), pp.68-86. La Opinión is the city's major daily Spanish-language paper. When the act was passed, California was unable to create a State Implementation Plan that would enable it to meet the new air quality standards, largely because of the level of pollution in Los Angeles generated by older vehicles. 日本語 1 250 000+ 記事. As home to Hollywood and its entertainment industry, numerous singers, actors, celebrities and other entertainers live in various districts of Los Angeles. Many of these native species, such as the Los Angeles sunflower, have become so rare as to be considered endangered. [76] These neighborhoods were developed piecemeal, and are well-defined enough that the city has signage marking nearly all of them. Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood entertainment industry, and its sprawling metropolis. Pierre Willaime et Alexandre Hocquet Laboratoire d’Histoire des Sciences et de … [29], In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The San Diego Chargers announced on January 12, 2017 that they would also relocate back to Los Angeles (the first since its inaugural season in 1960) and become the Los Angeles Chargers beginning in the 2017 NFL season and played at Dignity Health Sports Park in Carson, California for three seasons. Wikipédia est définie par des principes fondateurs. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. There are three public universities within the city limits: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Créez votre propre page wiki. Manufacturing in Los Angeles skyrocketed, and as William S. Knudsen, of the National Defense Advisory Commission put it, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible. Washington area north of Downtown, eastern parts such as Boyle Heights, the Crenshaw district around the Baldwin Hills, and the San Pedro district. Summer days are usually rainless. [185] For the first quarter of 2018, there were just under 95 million system-wide boardings, down from about 98 million in 2017, and about 105 million in 2016. 53 likes. d u P N L S / K o n g o Central. [36], Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line from New Orleans to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Los Angeles has 25 sister cities,[202] listed chronologically by year joined: In addition, Los Angeles has the following "friendship cities": This article is about the U.S. city. [51] The expansion of the Interstate Highway System during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system, once the world's largest. [47] Les pages de discussion servent à centraliser les réflexions et les remarques permettant d’améliorer les articles. Par contre, un logiciel libre est par définition libre de droit d'usage et de modification.Zn L'ambiguïté provient du double sens qui s'attache au mot « free » en anglais : . structural … 3 WI K I P E D I A . The city's subway system is the ninth busiest in the United States and its light rail system is the country's busiest. [101][102] Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones. [135], The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology. For the county, see, Climate data for Los Angeles (LAX), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1944–present. la vulgarisation comme l’«Action de mettre des connaissances techniques et scientifiques à la portée des non-spécialistes, du plus grand nombre «et il est courant de considérer que cette “transmission” de connaissances ardues à un publicnon-initiésefaitparlebiaisd’unlangagesimple1etdeschémas2.Cha- The number of Stage 1 smog alerts in Los Angeles has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. [174], According to the Los Angeles Police Department, the city is home to 45,000 gang members, organized into 450 gangs. [171], In 2015, it was revealed that the LAPD had been under-reporting crime for eight years, making the crime rate in the city appear much lower than it really is. [103] The percentage of small particle pollution (the kind that penetrates into the lungs) coming from vehicles in the city can get as high as 55 percent.[104]. The Forum, SoFi Stadium, Dignity Health Sports Park, the Rose Bowl, Angel Stadium and Honda Center are also in adjacent cities and cities in Los Angeles's metropolitan area. With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area, the region has the second-largest population of Jews in the United States. In addition, the city directly contracts for local and commuter bus service through the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, or LADOT. Il peut être copié et réutilisé sous la même licence, sous réserve d'en respecter les conditions. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles's cultural identity. [187] According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 9.2% of working Los Angeles (city) residents made the journey to work via public transportation.[188]. [180], The city and the rest of the Los Angeles metropolitan area are served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. L’indispensable pour surfer sur le Net ..... 15 The first Buddhist joss house was founded in the city in 1875. Elle est peut-être protégée par des droits d'auteur. ROBIC,S.E.N.C.R.L.www.robic.ca info@robic.com MONTRÉAL1001,Square-Victoria-BlocE-8eétage Montréal(Québec)CanadaH2Z2B7 Tél.:+1514987-6242Téléc. [149] The Walt Disney Concert Hall, centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic. The majority of this (30.5 million) is taken up by the city's bus system,[184] the second busiest in the country. Other major nearby commercial airports include: One of the world's busiest general-aviation airports is also in Los Angeles, Van Nuys Airport (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY).[190]. [37] Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. [71] The Los Angeles basin and metropolitan area are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes. Passenger ferry service from San Pedro to the city of Avalon on Santa Catalina Island is provided by Catalina Express. cit. [196] In Los Angeles, black people are roughly four times more likely to experience homelessness, which has been partially attributed to systemic racism.[196][201]. [110] The American Lung Association's 2013 survey ranks the metro area as having the nation's worst smog, and fourth in both short-term and year-round pollution amounts. Los Angeles also hosted the Deaflympics in 1985[159] and Special Olympics World Summer Games in 2015.[160]. Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages. [140], The Department of Cannabis Regulation enforces cannabis legislation after the legalization of the sale and distribution of cannabis in 2016. [168][169] This included 15 officer-involved shootings. The LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA County Metro) and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles County, with a combined monthly ridership (measured in individual boardings) of 38.8 million as of September 2011[update]. In 1969, California became the birthplace of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park.[54]. The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources. As part of the region's aforementioned creative industry, the Big Four major broadcast television networks, ABC, CBS, FOX, and NBC, all have production facilities and offices throughout various areas of Los Angeles. The age distribution was 874,525 people (23.1%) under 18, 434,478 people (11.5%) from 18 to 24, 1,209,367 people (31.9%) from 25 to 44, 877,555 people (23.1%) from 45 to 64, and 396,696 people (10.5%) who were 65 or older. Wikipédia Sourceslibres,scriptssimples!dicode65M+dephrases célèbres Casse4M+motsdepasse(destrèslongs)+desmnémoniques Onpeutraffiner ... Wikipedia,l’encyclopedielibre etgratuite Thequickbrownfoxjumpsover thelazyeog Pa’swijzelynxbezagvroomhet fikseaquaduct 09F911029D74E35BD8 4156C5635688C0 All four major broadcast television networks, plus major Spanish-language networks Telemundo and Univision, also own and operate stations that both serve the Los Angeles market and serve as each network's West Coast flagship station: ABC's KABC-TV (Channel 7), CBS's KCBS-TV (Channel 2), Fox's KTTV-TV (Channel 11), NBC's KNBC-TV (Channel 4), MyNetworkTV's KCOP-TV (Channel 13), Telemundo's KVEA-TV (Channel 52), and Univision's KMEX-TV (Channel 34). La coopération entre l… These included explosives warehousing, gas works, oil-drilling, slaughterhouses, and tanneries. However, this is complicated by rugged terrain, which has necessitated having different grids for each of the valleys that Los Angeles covers. 20 (1971–2000)", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Pacific Ocean Temperatures on California Coast", "Snow falling in Los Angeles, Pasadena and California's coastal cities", https://www.9news.com/article/weather/accuweather/malibu-snow-snowfall-photos-weather-forecast/507-c4f6e6a1-ce70-4153-859c-273beb266ad7, "Station Name: CA LOS ANGELES DWTN USC CAMPUS", "WMO Climate Normals for LOS ANGELES/INTL, CA 1961–1990", "L.A.'s Environmental Success Story: Cleaner Air, Healthier Kids", "Pittsburgh and Los Angeles the most polluted US cities", "Los Angeles meets 20 percent renewable energy goal", "American Lung Association State of the Air 2013 – Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA", "EPA officers sickened by fumes at South L.A. oil field", "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: New York city, New York; New York; United States", "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA — Los Angeles", "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990", "Los Angeles, California Population 2019", Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, "Cardinal Puts Church in Fight for Immigration Rights", "2011 'Grand Procession' revives founding of L.A. Marian devotion", "Washington Symposium and Exhibition Highlight Restoration and Adaptive Reuse of American Synagogues", "Los Angeles's Breed Street Shul Saved by Politicians", "n Overview of Religion in Los Angeles from 1850 to 1930", "History of MCC – Metropolitan Community Churches", "Church of Scientology Celebrity Centre International", "Dozens of unlicensed cannabis dispensaries raided in L.A. this week", "Navigating LA's cannabis industry with the city's pot czar", "L.A. should suspend vetting applications for pot shops amid concerns, Wesson urges", "Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made The List", "City of Los Angeles' Comprehensive Annual Financial Report", "Is Los Angeles really the creative capital of the world? ROBIC,S.E.N.C.R.L.www.robic.ca info@robic.com MONTRÉAL1001,Square-Victoria-BlocE-8eétage Montréal(Québec)CanadaH2Z2B7 Tél.:+1514987-6242Téléc. Many varieties of Judaism are represented in the greater Los Angeles area, including Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist. "[49], In the 1930s–1940s, Los Angeles county was the national leader in agriculture.[50]. The city has many departments and appointed officers, including the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners, the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD), the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA), the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT), and the Los Angeles Public Library (LAPL). A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), which has been translated as "poison oak place". Important landmarks in Los Angeles include the Hollywood Sign, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Capitol Records Building, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Angels Flight, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Dolby Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Stahl House, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, L.A. Live, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Venice Canal Historic District and boardwalk, Theme Building, Bradbury Building, U.S. Bank Tower, Wilshire Grand Center, Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Battleship USS Iowa, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, and Olvera Street. [34], New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. The Los Angeles County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. [165] Los Angeles experienced a significant decline in crime in the 1990s and late 2000s and reached a 50-year low in 2009 with 314 homicides. Son contenu est sous licence Creative Commons BY-SA.